SELECT

功能描述

SELECT用于从表或视图中取出数据。

SELECT语句就像叠加在数据库表上的过滤器,利用SQL关键字从数据表中过滤出用户需要的数据。

注意事项

  • 对比原openGauss的SELECT语法,新增了WHERE子句下的sounds like语法。

  • 新增join不带on/using,效果与cross join一致。

  • 新增PARTITION子句可指定多个分区。

语法格式

  • 查询数据
[ WITH [ RECURSIVE ] with_query [, ...] ]
SELECT [/*+ plan_hint */] [ ALL | DISTINCT [ ON ( expression [, ...] ) ] ]
{ * | {expression [ [ AS ] output_name ]} [, ...] }
[ FROM from_item [, ...] ]
[ WHERE condition ]
[ [ START WITH condition ] CONNECT BY [NOCYCLE] condition [ ORDER SIBLINGS BY expression ] ]
[ GROUP BY grouping_element [, ...] ]
[ HAVING condition [, ...] ]
[ WINDOW {window_name AS ( window_definition )} [, ...] ]
[ { UNION | INTERSECT | EXCEPT | MINUS } [ ALL | DISTINCT ] select ]
[ ORDER BY {expression [ [ ASC | DESC | USING operator ] | nlssort_expression_clause ] [ NULLS { FIRST | LAST } ]} [, ...] ]
[ LIMIT { [offset,] count | ALL } ]
[ OFFSET start [ ROW | ROWS ] ]
[ FETCH { FIRST | NEXT } [ count ] { ROW | ROWS } ONLY ]
[ {FOR { UPDATE | NO KEY UPDATE | SHARE | KEY SHARE } [ OF table_name [, ...] ] [ NOWAIT ]} [...] ];
  • 其中指定查询源from_item为:

    {[ ONLY ] table_name [ * ] [ partition_clause ] [ [ AS ] alias [ ( column_alias [, ...] ) ] ]
    [ TABLESAMPLE sampling_method ( argument [, ...] ) [ REPEATABLE ( seed ) ] ]
    [TIMECAPSULE {TIMESTAMP|CSN} expression]
    |( select ) [ AS ] alias [ ( column_alias [, ...] ) ]
    |with_query_name [ [ AS ] alias [ ( column_alias [, ...] ) ] ]
    |function_name ( [ argument [, ...] ] ) [ AS ] alias [ ( column_alias [, ...] | column_definition [, ...] ) ]
    |function_name ( [ argument [, ...] ] ) AS ( column_definition [, ...] )
    |from_item [ NATURAL ] join_type from_item [ ON join_condition | USING ( join_column [, ...] ) ]}
    
  • 其中group子句为:

    ( )
    | expression
    | ( expression [, ...] )
    | rollup_clause
    | CUBE ( { expression | ( expression [, ...] ) } [, ...] )
    | GROUPING SETS ( grouping_element [, ...] )
    
  • 其中指定分区partition_clause为:

    PARTITION { ( partition_name [, ...] ) | 
            FOR (  partition_value [, ...] ) }
    

    说明: 指定分区只适合分区表。

    rollup_clause子句为:

    ROLLUP ( { expression | ( expression [, ...] ) } [, ...] )
    | { expression | ( expression [, ...] ) } WITH ROLLUP
    
  • JOIN语法

[JOIN | INNER JOIN] {ON join_condition | USING ( join_column [, ...] ) }

参数说明

  • WHERE子句

    sounds like是condition的一种语法,用法如:column_name sounds like '字符'; 相当于soundex(column_name) = soundex('字符')的对比结果,是一个boolean的值。用于通过soundex处理来查询满足条件的数据。

说明:

涉及的其它参数说明可见SELECT

示例

  • SOUNDS LIKE子句示例:同音字段查询
openGauss=# CREATE TABLE TEST(id int, name varchar);
openGauss=# INSERT INTO TEST VALUES(1, 'too');
openGauss=# SELECT * FROM TEST WHERE name SOUNDS LIKE 'two';
 id | name
----+------
  1 | too
(1 row)
  • SELECT GROUP BY子句中使用ROLLUP
openGauss=# CREATE TABLESPACE t_tbspace ADD DATAFILE 'my_tablespace' ENGINE = test_engine;
CREATE TABLESPACE
openGauss=# CREATE TABLE t_with_rollup(id int, name varchar(20), area varchar(50), count int);
CREATE TABLE
openGauss=# INSERT INTO t_with_rollup values(1, 'a', 'A', 10);
INSERT 0 1
openGauss=# INSERT INTO t_with_rollup values(2, 'b', 'B', 15);
INSERT 0 1
openGauss=# INSERT INTO t_with_rollup values(2, 'b', 'B', 20);
INSERT 0 1
openGauss=# INSERT INTO t_with_rollup values(3, 'c', 'C', 50);
INSERT 0 1
openGauss=# INSERT INTO t_with_rollup values(3, 'c', 'C', 15);
INSERT 0 1
openGauss=# SELECT name, sum(count) FROM t_with_rollup GROUP BY ROLLUP(name);
 name | sum
------+-----
 a    |  10
 b    |  35
 c    |  65
      | 110
(4 rows)

openGauss=# SELECT name, sum(count) FROM t_with_rollup GROUP BY (name) WITH ROLLUP;
 name | sum
------+-----
 a    |  10
 b    |  35
 c    |  65
      | 110
(4 rows)
openGauss=# create table join_1(col1 int4, col2 int8);

openGauss=# create table join_2(col1 int4, col2 int8);

openGauss=# insert into join_1 values(1, 2), (3, 3);

openGauss=# insert into join_2 values(1, 1), (2, 3), (4, 4);

openGauss=# select join_1 join join_2;

 col1 | col2 | col1 | col2
------+------+------+------
    1 |    2 |    1 |    1
    1 |    2 |    2 |    3
    1 |    2 |    4 |    4
    3 |    3 |    1 |    1
    3 |    3 |    2 |    3
    3 |    3 |    4 |    4

openGauss=# select join_1 inner join join_2;

 col1 | col2 | col1 | col2
------+------+------+------
    1 |    2 |    1 |    1
    1 |    2 |    2 |    3
    1 |    2 |    4 |    4
    3 |    3 |    1 |    1
    3 |    3 |    2 |    3
    3 |    3 |    4 |    4
  • SELECT FROM PARTITION子句指定多个分区
openGauss=# create table multi_partition_select_test(C_INT INTEGER) partition by range(C_INT)
openGauss-# (
openGauss(#     partition test_part1 values less than (400),
openGauss(#     partition test_part2 values less than (700),
openGauss(#     partition test_part3 values less than (1000)
openGauss(# );
CREATE TABLE
openGauss=# insert into multi_partition_select_test values(111);
INSERT 0 1
openGauss=# insert into multi_partition_select_test values(555);
INSERT 0 1
openGauss=# insert into multi_partition_select_test values(888);
INSERT 0 1

openGauss=# select a.* from multi_partition_select_test partition (test_part1, test_part2) a;
 c_int
-------
   111
   555
(2 rows)

相关链接

SELECT

意见反馈
编组 3备份
    openGauss 2024-04-16 00:47:37
    取消