Generating Certificates

Scenarios

In the test environment, users can use either of the following methods to test digital certificates. In a customer's operating environment, only a digital certificate obtained from a CA can be used.

Prerequisites

The OpenSSL component has been installed in the Linux environment.

Generating an Automatic Authentication Certificate

  1. Establish a CA environment.

    -- Suppose that user omm exists, and the CA path is test.
    -- Log in to the Linux environment as user root and switch to user omm:
    mkdir test
    cd /etc/pki/tls
    -- Copy the configuration file openssl.cnf to test.
    cp openssl.cnf ~/test
    cd ~/test
    --Establish the CA environment under the test folder.
    --Create folder demoCA./demoCA/newcerts./demoCA/private.
    mkdir ./demoCA ./demoCA/newcerts ./demoCA/private
    chmod 777 ./demoCA/private
    --Create the serial file and write it to 01.
    echo '01'>./demoCA/serial
    -- Create the index.txt file.
    touch ./demoCA/index.txt
    -- Modify parameters in the openssl.cnf configuration file.
    dir  = ./demoCA
    default_md      = sha256
    --The CA environment has been established.
    
  2. Generate a root private key.

    --Generate a CA private key.
    openssl genrsa -aes256 -out demoCA/private/cakey.pem 2048
    Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
    .................+++
    ..................+++
    e is 65537 (0x10001)
    --Set the protection password of the root private key to at least four characters, for example, Test@123.
    Enter pass phrase for demoCA/private/cakey.pem:
    --Enter the private key password Test@123 again.
    Verifying - Enter pass phrase for demoCA/private/cakey.pem:
    
  3. Generate a root certificate request file.

    --Generate a CA root certificate application file named careq.pem.
    openssl req -config openssl.cnf -new -key demoCA/private/cakey.pem -out demoCA/careq.pem
    Enter pass phrase for demoCA/private/cakey.pem:
    --Enter the root private key password Test@123.
    You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
    into your certificate request.
    What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
    There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
    For some fields there will be a default value,
    If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
    -----
    
    --Note down the following names and use them when entering information in the generated server certificate and client certificate.
    Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:CN
    State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:shanxi
    Locality Name (eg, city) []:xian
    Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:Abc
    Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:hello
    --Common Name can be randomly set.
    Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:world
    --The email address is optional.
    Email Address []:
    
    Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
    to be sent with your certificate request
    A challenge password []:
    An optional company name []:
    
  4. Generate a self-signed root certificate.

    --When generating the root certificate, modify the openssl.cnf file and set basicConstraints to CA:TRUE.
    vi openssl.cnf
    -- Generate a CA self-signed root certificate.
    openssl ca -config openssl.cnf -out demoCA/cacert.pem -keyfile demoCA/private/cakey.pem -selfsign -infiles demoCA/careq.pem
    Using configuration from openssl.cnf
    Enter pass phrase for demoCA/private/cakey.pem:
    --Enter the root private key password Test@123.
    Check that the request matches the signature
    Signature ok
    Certificate Details:
            Serial Number: 1 (0x1)
            Validity
                Not Before: Feb 28 02:17:11 2017 GMT
                Not After : Feb 28 02:17:11 2018 GMT
            Subject:
                countryName               = CN
                stateOrProvinceName       = shanxi
                organizationName          = Abc
                organizationalUnitName    = hello
                commonName                = world
            X509v3 extensions:
                X509v3 Basic Constraints: 
                    CA:FALSE
                Netscape Comment: 
                    OpenSSL Generated Certificate
                X509v3 Subject Key Identifier: 
                    F9:91:50:B2:42:8C:A8:D3:41:B0:E4:42:CB:C2:BE:8D:B7:8C:17:1F
                X509v3 Authority Key Identifier: 
                    keyid:F9:91:50:B2:42:8C:A8:D3:41:B0:E4:42:CB:C2:BE:8D:B7:8C:17:1F
    
    Certificate is to be certified until Feb 28 02:17:11 2018 GMT (365 days)
    Sign the certificate? [y/n]:y
    
    
    1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y
    Write out database with 1 new entries
    Data Base Updated
    --A CA root certificate named demoCA/cacert.pem has been issued.
    
  5. Generate a private key for the server certificate.

    --Generate a private key file named server.key.
    openssl genrsa -aes256 -out server.key 2048
    Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key
    .......++++++
    ..++++++
    e is 65537 (0x10001)
    Enter pass phrase for server.key:
    --The password of the server private key must contain a minimum of four characters, for example, Test@123.
    Verifying - Enter pass phrase for server.key:
    --Confirm the protection password for the server private key Test@123 again.
    
  6. Generate a server certificate request file.

    --Generate a server certificate request file server.req.
    openssl req -config openssl.cnf -new -key server.key -out server.req
    Enter pass phrase for server.key:
    You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
    into your certificate request.
    What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
    There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
    For some fields there will be a default value,
    If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
    -----
    
    --Set the following information and make sure that it is same as that when CA is created.
    Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:CN
    State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:shanxi
    Locality Name (eg, city) []:xian
    Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:Abc
    Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:hello
    --Common Name can be randomly set.
    Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:world
    Email Address []:
    --The following information is optional.
    Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
    to be sent with your certificate request
    A challenge password []:
    An optional company name []:
    
  7. Generate a server certificate.

    --When generating the server certificate or client certificate, modify the openssl.cnf file and set basicConstraints to CA:FALSE.
    vi openssl.cnf
    --Change the demoCA/index.txt.attr attribute to no.
    vi demoCA/index.txt.attr
    
    --Issue the generated server certificate request file. After it is issued, an official server certificate server.crt is generated.
    openssl ca  -config openssl.cnf -in server.req -out server.crt -days 3650 -md sha256
    Using configuration from /etc/ssl/openssl.cnf
    Enter pass phrase for ./demoCA/private/cakey.pem:
    Check that the request matches the signature
    Signature ok
    Certificate Details:
            Serial Number: 2 (0x2)
            Validity
                Not Before: Feb 27 10:11:12 2017 GMT
                Not After : Feb 25 10:11:12 2027 GMT
            Subject:
                countryName               = CN
                stateOrProvinceName       = shanxi
                organizationName          = Abc
                organizationalUnitName    = hello
                commonName                = world
            X509v3 extensions:
                X509v3 Basic Constraints: 
                    CA:FALSE
                Netscape Comment: 
                    OpenSSL Generated Certificate
                X509v3 Subject Key Identifier: 
                    EB:D9:EE:C0:D2:14:48:AD:EB:BB:AD:B6:29:2C:6C:72:96:5C:38:35
                X509v3 Authority Key Identifier: 
                    keyid:84:F6:A1:65:16:1F:28:8A:B7:0D:CB:7E:19:76:2A:8B:F5:2B:5C:6A
    
    Certificate is to be certified until Feb 25 10:11:12 2027 GMT (3650 days)
    --Enter y to sign and issue the certificate.
    Sign the certificate? [y/n]:y
    
    --Enter y. The certificate singing and issuing is complete.
    1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y
    Write out database with 1 new entries
    Data Base Updated
    

    Disable password protection for the private key.

    --Disable the password protection for the server private key.
    openssl rsa -in server.key -out server.key
    --If the password protection for the server private key is not disabled, you need to use the gs_guc tool to encrypt the password.
    gs_guc encrypt -M server -K Test@123 -D ./
    --After the password is encrypted using gs_guc, two private key password protection files server.key.cipher and server.key.rand are generated.
    
  8. Generate the client certificate and private key.

    Methods and requirements for generating client certificates and private keys are the same as that for server certificates and private keys.

    --Generate a client private key.
    openssl genrsa -aes256 -out client.key 2048
    --Generate a certificate request file for a client.
    openssl req -config openssl.cnf -new -key client.key -out client.req 
    --After the generated certificate request file for client is signed and issued, a formal client certificate client.crt is generated.
    openssl ca -config openssl.cnf -in client.req -out client.crt -days 3650 -md sha256
    

    Disable password protection for the private key:

    --Disable the protection for a client private key password.
    openssl rsa -in client.key -out client.key
    --If password protection for a client private key is not removed, you need to use the gs_guc tool to encrypt the password.
    gs_guc encrypt -M client -K Test@123 -D ./  
    After the password is encrypted using gs_guc, two private key password protection files client.key.cipher and client.key.rand are generated.
    

    Convert the client key to the DER format.

    openssl pkcs8 -topk8 -outform DER -in client.key -out client.key.pk8 -nocrypt
    
  9. Generate a CRL.

    If the CRL is required, you can generate it by following the following procedure:

    --Create a crlnumber file.
    echo '00'>./demoCA/crlnumber
    --Revoke a server certificate.
    openssl ca -config openssl.cnf -revoke server.crt
    --Generate the CRL sslcrl-file.crl.
    openssl ca -config openssl.cnf -gencrl -out sslcrl-file.crl
    
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